We formulated oxidation of SO2 in the gas phase and in the aqueous phase of cloud, rain, and aerosol water droplets (Kajino et al., 2012). SO2 oxidation can also occur as a heterogeneous oxidation on dust particle surfaces (Tang et al., 2004), but we did not implement this pathway in the model. NC stations. While the wet-only precipitation sampler can collect any size of the droplets during precipitation events, the aerosol sampler cannot. RAQM2 can provide a rigorous solution to this competitive and non-equilibrium process with a short time step of 1 s. The current off-line coupling framework together with the coarse grid resolution is not suitable for resolving the cloud microphysics process or for tracking the aerosols involved in it. 2004) for the dust deflation process and Clarke et al. To accurately simulate the fate of Asian air pollutants, a model (Regional Air Quality Model 2; RAQM2) has been developed with the following components: emissions of anthropogenic trace species; biomass burning; biogenic and natural (Asian dust and sea salt) aerosol emissions; advec-tion and turbulent diffusion; photochemistry and new particle formation; gas-to-particle conversion of inorganic and organic compounds; Brownian coagulation; CCN and IN activation and cloud microphysical processes; grid-scale liquidphase chemistry in hydrometeors as well as in aerosol water; subgrid-scale convection and wet scavenging; and dry deposition of gas and particles (details are given in Kajino et al., 2012, and in the current paper).
Suto et al. (2010) estimated that depositional mass fluxes of sea salt particles of whole size ranges (coarse mode plus LSPs) decreased by one order of magnitude at distances of several kilometers from Tokyo Bay and by two orders of magnitude at distances of several tens of kilometers from the coast. Fig. 8. Scatter diagrams of daily precipitation pH at NC stations, (x-axis) observed and (y-axis) calculated using (a) observed chemical compositions (blue), (b) with 90% of the components derived from sea salt excluded (green), and (c) with 99 % of the components derived from sea salt excluded (pink). Kajino et al. (2012) showed that the modeled size distributions, such as PM2.5/ PM10 of total mass and PM1/bulk ratios of chemical components, were consistent with the observations. Evaluation of the model performance for each form of T-NO3- will be required in terms of gas-aerosol partitioning (HNO3 and NO-) and observations of mass size distribution (for submicron NH4NO3 and super-micron NaNO3) to identify the reasons for the discrepancies in surface concentrations and to improve the model performance for T-NO3- . Such an evaluation is, however, indispensable to assess the consistency in the entire modeling system, from emissions and transport to transformation and deposition.
Asia is the most populated region in the world, and its associated anthropogenic emissions are huge (Ohara et al., 2007; Kurokawa et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2009). In addition to these anthropogenic emissions, massive amounts of Asian dust particles are lofted from arid and semi-arid regions of the Asian continent. In addition, we did not consider dimethyl sulfide chemistry and SOx from outside the domain boundary in the simulation because we assumed that these components were not substantial for the targeted region. In the current study, we added time-varying lateral and upper boundary concentrations of gaseous species predicted by a global stratospheric and tropospheric Meteorological Research Institute Chemistry Climate model (MRI-CCM2; Deushi and Shibata, 2011) with a time resolution of 1 h. Abstract. We conducted a regional-scale simulation over Northeast Asia for the year 2006 using an aerosol chemical transport model, with time-varying lateral and upper boundary concentrations of gaseous species predicted by a global stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry-climate model.
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